PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION OF ENERGY AND CLIMATE ADAPTATION: GLOBAL TASKS AND LOCAL ROUTES
Free (open access)
Volume 12 (2017), Issue 8
1326 - 1337
ELENA MAGARIL, ROMEN MAGARIL, DEBORAH PANEPINTO, GIUSEPPE GENON, MARCO RAVINA, LUBOV TRUSHKOVA & MARIA CHIARA ZANETTI
Nowadays, when the energy, industry and transport sectors are adapting to climate change and need to reduce their environmental impact, it is vital that the optimal solutions are found for individual countries and their different circumstances. Territories, which have a hydrocarbon deficit, should use non-conventional energy sources while the countries with substantial resources of hydrocarbons should be focused on the strategy of raising the energy efficiency, i.e. to reduce the specific consumption of fuel consumed. The paper discusses these scenarios and describes some innovative technologies for both cases. Energy production from biomass is encouraged in some European countries by the granting of generous economic subsidies so that renewable energy plants, such as anaerobic digestion plants that produce biogas for use in internal combustion engines, in particular, are receiving much funding. An alternative technology for biogas valorisation could be that of biomethane (so called green gas) production through biogas purification and upgrading processes to remove CO2, H2S and water vapour. Different technologies have been proposed to remove CO2 from gas streams, such as physical absorption, absorption by chemical solvents, cryogenic and membrane separation and CO2 fixation by chemical or biological methods. Production of biomethane and its introduction into the natural gas grid or its use as a fuel for vehicles could increase the energy efficiency and reduce specific emissions (combined cycle gas turbines, district heating of CHP units, methane powered vehicles). A simple and low-cost method of improving energy efficiency and environmental safety of transport by introducing into hydrocarbon fuels micro doses of a universal multifunctional additive is proposed. The method will make a significant contribution towards solving the problems of adapting to global climate change and improving the environment. It is capable of reducing specific fuel consumption by up to 12% and the requirements for a gasoline octane number by 10 points. It significantly reduces emission levels of greenhouse gases and toxic substances and provides complex improvement of the properties of fuels and the condition of engines.
Biogas, biomethane, climatic adaptation, energy efficiency, environmental safety, hydrocar- bon fuels, multifunctional additive