HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF AIRBORNE TRACE ELEMENTS FOR HUMAN RECEPTORS IN THE VICINITY OF THE DIAMOND CEMENT FACTORY, VOLTA REGION, GHANA
Free (open access)
Volume 11 (2016), Issue 4
522 - 536
M.A. ADDO, E.O. DARKO, C. GORDON, P. DAVOR, F. AMEYAW, H. AFFUM, J.K. GBADAGO, & S. DZIDE
In this study, total suspended particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter range between 0.05 and 5 µm) levels in the vicinity of the Diamond Cement (DIACEM) Factory, Aflao, Ghana were measured and analyzed for As, Cr, Ni and Zn using multi-elemental technique of instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The primary objective of the study was to assess the human health risk of the trace metals exposure for children and adult population in four stratified zones in the study area. From the results, the mean dust level (538.92 µg/m3) around the cement facility deviated completely from regulatory specification (150 µg/m3) indicating massive air pollution in the area. The mean concentration (mg/kg) of trace metals in the area were found in the order of Ni (44.38) >Zn (25.65) > Cr (15.26) >As (2.87). The human-risk assessment study indicated that non-carcinogenic risk was insignificant but the risk of cancer could be probable. Ingestion exposure was the highest level of risk found for both adults and children population in the area. The study encourages more work as it cautioned that the current results cannot symbolize a general portrait of the cement industry in Ghana, explaining that similar facilities may differ in their pollution cleaning strategies and environmental conditions.
airborne dust, arsenic, carcinogenic, cement industry, enrichment factor, hazard index, ingestion, risk assessment, slope factor, trace metals