WIT Press

A quick energy performance simulation of typical Bhutanese residential building using building information modelling


Free (open access)


Volume 7 (2022), Issue 1



Page Range

73 - 82

Paper DOI



WIT Press


Choten Tshering & Kumpon Subsomboon


Bhutan is a tiny nation located in the Himalayan Mountain between India and China, with scarce natural resources and energy. So, this study aims to examine the energy performance of typical Bhutanese residential buildings by applying building information modelling. The typical Bhutanese residential building uses traditionally plastered brick walls and concrete block walls without insulation, resulting in greater heat loss from the structure. The heat loss from the building has a direct impact on the energy consumption of the building. Throughout most districts, the weather is cold from September to February, and mild with humid temperatures in the summer. The models have been constructed and analyzed using software called ‘Open Building Designer’ and ‘Energy Simulator’ under 3 scenarios: concrete block wall/concrete slab, brick wall/concrete slab, and stone masonry wall/timber flooring. The study was carried out on these three scenarios to ascertain the energy consumption, heat loss, and heat gain on the designed period. According to the simulation results, the Bhutanese residential building had a high heat loss from building but less heat intake from outside. Timber flooring and stone masonry wall are preferred in colder region as it can retain more heat if no insulation walls are used. The result also revealed that most of the heat from the structure was dissipated through the walls. Following that, a few types of insulated walls were used for simulation reasons, mostly to improve the building’s thermal per- formance. Heat loss from the structure was minimized up to 46–65% by adopting the insulated walls. 


buildings, building information modelling, consumption, energy, insulation simulation, slab, walls.