WIT Press

Constructed wetlands implementation in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal


Free (open access)


Volume 4 (2021), Issue 4



Page Range

363 - 374

Paper DOI



WIT Press


Zuzana Boukalová, Jan Těšitel & Binod Das Gurung


Constructed wetlands can be considered as a strategic nature-based wastewater treatment technology for Nepal, where the discharge of untreated wastewater into rivers, lakes or any other water body is a common practice and where the big wastewater treatment plants are not well functioning or are not sufficiently used. The successful implementation of constructed wetlands in Nepal is conditioned by many factors, which should be considered. Legislation is weak and hygienic standards are low; therefore, wastewater treatment is usually not a priority for city governments and private or public institutions, as well as for communities themselves. Under these circumstances, it is not an exception that it might be difficult to convince people to pay for constructed wetlands implementation and maintenance. Our paper discusses conditions influencing the applicability of constructed wetlands in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, by empirically analysing the best and bad practices of their application. The focus is paid to present the social situation and history of analysed communities and organisations. Implementation of constructed wetlands for schools is discussed as a special case, as well as the change of the communities’ approach towards constructed wetlands’ importance, as it appeared during the pandemic situation of COVID-19 in 2020. 


constructed wetlands, Kathmandu Valley, land management, communities, nature-based water treatment solutions, pollution control, Nepal, water resources management.