WIT Press

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and the impact of a smoking ban in internet cafes, pubs and billiard halls around a university in Korea


Free (open access)


Volume 2 (2019), Issue 4



Page Range

356 - 365

Paper DOI



WIT Press


Kwonchul Ha & Donguk Park


The objectives of this study were to determine indoor levels of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and assess the implementation rate of a smoking ban in hospitality venues surrounding a university campus by measuring particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) as an indicator of ETS. We identified the
smoking state in business establishments and measured the indoor PM2.5 concentrations at 20 internet cafes, 38 pubs and 20 billiard halls using a Sidepak AM510 direct-reading portable real-time monitor from October 2014 to December 2015. Smoking was observed in 65% of the internet cafes and 85% of the billiard halls in 2015. The rate in pubs, which were subject to a legal smoking ban, was reduced to 10% in 2015 from 33.3% in 2014. The average PM2.5 concentrations in 2015 were 98.6 μg/m3, 29.6 μg/m3 and 135.4 μg/m3 in internet cafes, pubs and billiard halls, respectively. PM2.5 concentrations in internet cafes and billiard halls were 2 to 2.7 times higher than the 24-h exposure standard (50 μg/m3) for outdoor
PM2.5 set by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Although a smoking ban had been imposed on internet cafes and pubs, smoking was still taking place in those locations. More stringent enforcement is required for the success of legal measures to protect patrons’ and workers’ health from second-hand smoke exposure. A ban on smoking in billiard halls should be introduced as soon as is feasible. 


ETS (Environmental Tobacco Smoke), internet café, billiard hall, PM2.5