THE SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF WATER: NMR STUDIES
Free (open access)
Volume 5 (2010), Issue 1
10 - 20
E. TIEZZI, M. CATALUCCI & N. MARCHETTINI
A total of 174 NMR Proton Relaxation time experiments were performed over a period of 20 years using different instruments in several universities. Namely T1 and T2 (the spin-lattice relaxation time and the spinspin relaxation time, respectively) were measured in different samples of water: distilled, homeopathic, spring water and water treated with electromagnetic fi elds. All samples were deoxygenated and particular care was devoted to avoid paramagnetic impurities. According to classical magnetic resonance literature T1 = T2 = 3.6 s. We found surprising results in all the water samples, T1 being two or three times greater than T2. The results have been explained in light of recent physical theories such as coherence domains, quantum electrodynamics (QED), thermodynamics of irreversible processes (TIP) and Pollack’s water exclusion zone (EZ). The formation of a supramolecular structure of water is suggested. The results are related to the small dimension of the NMR tubes and the role of surfaces.
NMR proton relaxation times, QED, thermodynamics of irreversible processes, water, water exclusion zone