PHENOMENA OF FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIATION AND FRACTAL FUNCTIONALITY
Free (open access)
Volume 11 (2016), Issue 4
508 - 521
The phenomena of vertical and horizontal emergence are analysed in terms of functional differentiation (FD), the concept of fractal functionality (FF), the concept of the zone of proximate development and an application to iterative map techniques. These theoretical components are used to trace an evolution of structures at various levels of organization and to derive several universal evolutionary principles. The implications of these principles are: (1) “building blocks” of natural systems are performed uniquely and only once, they emerge, change and disappear, and therefore cannot be considered as Lego-like “bricks” for these systems; (2) “building blocks” develop not prior to, but simultaneously with the emergence of a macro-system, to which they are associated, and may continue to change even after the macro-system is established; (3) the existence of functional groups “on the diagonal” affects the subdivisions of horizontal distributions; (4) soft associations of elements to functional systems of several levels of complexity speaks against a vertical division of complexity levels and against a horizontal division of building blocks.
diagonal evolution, emergence, functional differentiation FD-3 operators, functionality, neurotransmitters, zone of proximate development