CLASSIFICATION OF CATCHMENT RISK AREAS USING SPATIALLY DISTRIBUTED EVENT-BASED SOIL EROSION: A CASE OF UPPER NJORO RIVER CATCHMENT, KENYA
Free (open access)
Volume 3 (2008), Issue 4
281 - 296
R.M. WAMBUA, B.M. MUTUA, D.M. NYAANGA & P.M. KUNDU
Human-induced soil erosion and drastic change in land use practices have adversely influenced the land degradation and surface runoff response in upper Njoro River catchment. The drainage area is approximately 127 km2. Due to human activities, the land has been exposed to accelerated erosion and low land productivity, water scarcity, decline in ground water recharge, siltation of Lake Nakuru and other sediment sinks. This study was conducted to establish event-based risk areas for prioritized conservation within the catchment. Spatially distributed soil erosion map was created as a ratio of sediment yield to sediment delivery ratio (SDR). Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) integrated within a Geographical Information Systems environment was used to create the sediment yield map. Spatial data layers for the MUSLE were derived from a 20-m resolution Digital Elevation Model, soil property, land use maps and climatic data of the catchment. Land use map was derived from Landsat imagery via its processing using Integrated Land and Water Information Systems software. The results show that the spatially distributed soil erosion ranged from 0.06 to 0.51 t/ha for a 43.2-mm rainfall event. Spatially distributed SDR ranged from 0.09 to 0.82, while the average SDR for the whole catchment was 0.72. These values were derived using an empirical equation. A new contribution was made by developing spatially distributed slope length factor, SDR, runoff volumes, MUSLE parameters and classified erosion risk areas for prioritized catchment conservation. This means that the event-based soil erosion classifi cation can be adopted for prioritized soil and water conservation within Njoro catchment.
accelerated erosion, GIS, MUSLE, Njoro, prioritized conservation, water scarcity