WIT Press

Analysis of the giralda tower geotechnical profile and its settlements


Free (open access)


Volume 10 (2022), Issue 1



Page Range

1 - 12

Paper DOI



WIT Press


Emilio Romero Sánchez1, Aes Esteban, María Victoria Requena García de la Cruz & Jaime Navarro Casas


The preservation of the cultural heritage is a current and challenging issue for the sustainable development of countries, such is the case in the European Union. Seville is a Spanish city located in the southern Iberian Peninsula, and it is well-known for the importance of its cultural heritage. It is one of the main sources for its economic growth, employment and cultural development. The Giralda tower of the Cathedral of Seville is its most representative building. It has been declared as World Heritage Site by the UNESCO due to its patrimonial value. The Giralda was constructed in 1384 as the Aljama of the major mosque of Seville. However, it has undergone different construction phases over time. One of the most relevant modifications was the addition of the bell tower designed by the architect Hernán Ruíz in the Renaissance. Moreover, the tower has been affected by several historic earthquakes. The goal of this study is to define the geotechnical profile of the soil under the tower and to analyse its settlements. This study will focus on the several modifications that the building has suffered throughout its history. Moreover, it will properly and exhaustively characterise the foundation, which has not been carried out to date. To do so, the geotechnical profile has been defined accurately with the information of the boreholes drilled at its base. Then, finite elements have been used to model the different load phases, which correspond to the different construction phases. Finally, this analysis has shown a great agreement between the settlements of the tower and its real top displacements.


Conservation, Cultural heritage, Finite elements, Foundation, Geotechnical profile, Masonry tower, Soil, Settlements